A denture, a plate or a complete denture as it is often called, is an appliance that is inserted in the mouth that replaces natural teeth and provides support for the cheeks and lips.
Dentures are beneficial in multiple ways:
- Mastication – chewing ability is improved by replacing missing teeth with dentures.
- Aesthetics – dentures not only restore a natural and attractive appearance to the teeth, but can also correct the collapsed exterior of lips and cheeks that occurs after tooth loss.
- Confidence – a healthy and beautiful-looking smile will help the patient feel more confident and attractive.
- Phonetics – by replacing missing teeth, patients will be able to better pronounce certain words that require the use of teeth to speak.
Most dentures are made of acrylic and can be fabricated at different times. A conventional denture is made after all teeth have been extracted and the tissues (gums) have healed. An immediate or interim denture is fabricated and inserted immediately after the teeth are extracted and the tissues are allowed to heal under the denture.
An upper (i.e. maxillary) denture usually covers the palate (roof of the mouth) and a lower (i.e. mandibular) denture is shaped like a horseshoe to leave room for the tongue. The teeth are made of acrylic, composite, or a combination of both. Dentures can be fabricated to fit over endodontically-treated teeth or attached to dental implants to allow for a more secure fit of the appliance.
An upper denture is relatively straightforward to manufacture so it is stable without slippage. The lower full denture is typically more complex because there is no “suction” holding it in place like the upper denture. For this reason, there is a general consensus that a lower full denture should be supported by two to four implants placed in the lower jaw. A lower denture supported by implants is far more secure than without implants. Without implants, the denture is only held in place with weak lower mouth muscles. With a lower denture secured with implants, the patients should be able eat quite normally.
Over a normal course of time, dentures will wear and need to be replaced or relined in order to keep the jaw alignment normal. The alignment will slowly change as the bone and gum ridges recede or shrink due to extraction of the teeth. Annual dental examinations are still important for the denture wearer so the oral tissues can be checked for disease or change.